Senior Theses

Publication Date


Document Type

Thesis (Open Access)

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Physics



Faculty Advisor(s)

Jennifer Heath (Thesis Advisor)
Michael Crosser & Joelle Murray (Committee Members)

Subject Categories



Graphene is a new and exciting, two-dimensional material. Particularly interesting are the electrical features of graphene. The small size of graphene used in this experiment (on the scale of microns) presents the need for small electrical leads. Photolithography can be used to make appropriately sized leads by depositing metal onto substrates in specific patterns. The technique uses light to transfer geometric patterns onto a light sensitive photoresist on the surface of a substrate. We have built a low cost, maskless photolithography apparatus assembled from a computer, a consumer grade projector, and a microscope. With multiple exposures, we can make features ranging from approximately 1 μm to 785 μm. The 1 μm feature size is near the theoretical minimum for the wavelength of blue light used, and will be more than sufficient for contacting the flakes of graphene, which average 50 μm in size.

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Physics Commons