Faculty Publications

Publication Date



Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Health and Physical Education | Higher Education | Nursing | Science and Mathematics Education


This report describes a research study to measure the effect of simulation on clinical educators’ knowledge and skills about effective formative feedback for prelicensure nursing students.

Subject Population: Clinical nurse educators who teach prelicensure nursing students in clinical education were recruited.

Research Design: Pre-test and post-test design with a simulation workshop for educators as the intervention. This was a pilot study.

Theoretical Frameworks: The theoretical frameworks guiding the research study include Meleis’ Transitions theory and the NLN Jeffries Simulation theory. Transitions theory addresses the situational transition when a nurse clinician takes on the new role of nurse educator. Simulation theory provides structure and background for the concepts included in developing a simulation learning experience.

Instruments: The study used the modified Nurse Educator Self Evaluation (NESE) (Kalb & Skay, 2016), with six demographic questions. The Simulation Design Scale (SDS) was completed by participants after the simulation workshop to evaluate the effectiveness of the simulation experience. The PI-developed Observed Formative Feedback Behaviors Tool (OFFBT) was used during the simulation workshop to record participant use of six identified behaviors to promote effective formative feedback.

Procedure: After recruitment, participants completed the modified NESE online, completed an online module introducing formative feedback behaviors, and signed up for a 4-hour simulation workshop. After participating in the simulation workshop, participants completed the modified NESE and SDS. The OFFBT was used by the PI during the simulations to record participant use of feedback behaviors.

Results: Wilcoxon Signed Rank revealed a statistically significant increase in knowledge and skills following participation in the educational intervention.

Discussion: Placing clinical nurse educators in the learner role in simulation could provide benefits of increased knowledge, skills, and attitudes as shown in simulation education of nursing students. Results of this pilot study showed an increase in knowledge and skills for nurse educators in areas important for providing feedback to students.

Document Type



The author is the recipient of a 2018-2019 Sigma/ATI Educational Assessment Nursing Research Grant. The Sigma Theta Tau International grant application that funded this research, in whole or in part, was completed by the author and peer-reviewed prior to the award of the Sigma grant. No further peer-review has taken place upon the completion of this final report.

Original Citation

Julie Fitzwater
Using simulation to develop clinical teaching competencies in nurse educators.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.