Senior Theses

Publication Date


Document Type

Thesis (Open Access)

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Physics



Faculty Advisor(s)

Michael Crosser (Thesis Advisor)
Jennifer Heath & Joelle Murray (Committee Members)

Subject Categories

Condensed Matter Physics | Energy Systems | Engineering Physics | Materials Science and Engineering | Physics | Power and Energy


Two-dimensional materials exhibit properties unlike anything else seen in conventional substances. Electrons in these materials are confined to move only in the plane. In order to explore the effects of these materials, we have built apparatus and refined procedures with which to create two-dimensional structures. Two-dimensional devices have been made using exfoliated graphene and placed on gold contacts. Their topography has been observed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) confirming samples with monolayer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer structure. Relative work functions of each have been measured using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) showing that twisted bilayer graphene has a surface potential 20 mV higher than that of monolayer graphene and 35 mV below bilayer graphene.