Publication Date



Child Psychology | Developmental Psychology | Television


A content analysis of indirect, verbal, and physical aggression was conducted of 77 hours of television programming popular among fifth grade girls. Eighty-eight percent of programs contained aggression. Physical aggression occurred at a rate of 9.6 acts per hour, whereas indirect and verbal aggression occurred at a rate of 3.7 and 2.8 acts per hour, respectively. Rates of aggression varied by gender, age, and attractiveness of perpetrators, as well as by relationship between perpetrator and victim. Additionally, motivation and consequences of aggressive acts varied by form of aggression. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of current research and theories of media effects.

Document Type

Published Version


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Original Citation

Jennifer Ruh Linder & Kelsey Ann Lyle
A content analysis of indirect, verbal, and physical aggression in television programs popular among school-aged girls.
American Journal of Media Psychology, 2011, volume 4, pages 24-42



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