Publication Date



Native American Studies | Performance Studies | Speech and Rhetorical Studies | Sports Studies


Native American groups across the country have been protesting the use of their symbols and heritage in sports arenas for over a decade. Yet, particularly in the realm of professional sports, these protests have not generated significant changes in attitudes and practices. This critical essay examines several Native American protest events to reveal the factors contributing to the failure of the reform movement and to suggest some strategies for rhetorically reformulating the campaign.

Document Type

Accepted Version


This article is the author-created version that incorporates referee comments. It is the accepted-for-publication version. The content of this version may be identical to the published version (the version of record) save for value-added elements provided by the publisher (e.g., copy editing, layout changes, or branding consistent with the rest of the publication).


This is an electronic version of an article published in Quarterly Journal of Speech, volume 85, issue 2, 1999, pages 188-202. Quarterly Journal of Speech is available online at: doi:10.1080/00335639909384253

Original Citation

Jackson B. Miller
“Indians,” “Braves,” and “Redskins”: A performative struggle for control of an image.
Quarterly Journal of Speech, 1999, volume 85, issue 2, pages 188-202



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